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Influenza-like illness

General information

From week 2020w12, incidence and incidence rates of Influenza-like illness are estimated from a subset of the new indicator "Acute Respiratory Infection". Comparisons with historical data and interpretation of these new values must be done with caution.

    • Surveillance since 1984
    • State : active
    • Weekly surveillance : Data are published on a weekly time scale and updated when our weekly report is published
  • Case definition :
    Sudden fever > 39°C (>102°F) with myalgia and respiratory signs.
  • Description for each case: age; sex; immunization status and if vaccination, was it made less than three weeks; antiviral treatment prescribed, and if so which; does the patient have one or more risk factor(s) for complications from infection with an influenza virus ; hospitalization requested by the GP and if so why.
  • Modifications affecting this indicator
    • 09-09-2020 Change of data source for the indicator

Lastest data

Data of this indicator are updated each week and available at the same time as the weekly report

Find more data and visualization on pages Data access Historical analysis

Incidence rate of {{name}} in France (mainland) from start of surveillance

Last summaries published in our weekly report

These news have been published using available data until their publication. Due to data consolidation, small variation of incidence values can be observed in the next 3 weeks

In metropolitan France, last week (2020w11), the incidence rate of influenza-like illness seen in general practice was estimated at 176 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI [159 ; 193]).

At the regional level, the highest incidence rates were noted in: Occitanie (300 [233 ; 367]), Grand Est (255 [189 ; 321]) and Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (227 [172 ; 282]).

In week 11, among the ILI cases seen by the Sentinel physicians, 39 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) and influenza viruses. Of these specimens, 2 (5.1%) were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus and 18 (46.2%) were positive for influenza viruses (8 type A viruses and 10 type B viruses).

Conclusion of the working group for the global influenza surveillance in mainland France:
- Influenza epidemic peak passed for most metropolitan areas between week 05 and week 08, followed by a decreasing trend
- Increase in surveillance indicators for influenza-like illness in week 11 in most metropolitan areas
- Recent changes in indicators of influenza activity probably linked to the COVID-19 epidemic in mainland France
- End of seasonal flu surveillance this week
- Start of specific monitoring of COVID-19 in week 12

More information on Bulletin grippe Santé publique France.
In metropolitan France, last week (2020w10), the incidence rate of influenza-like illness seen in general practice was estimated at 167 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI [152 ; 182]).
At the regional level, the highest incidence rates were reported in: Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (285 [200 ; 370]), Hauts-de-France (256 [174 ; 338]) and Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (253 [194 ; 312]).
Conclusion of the working group for the global influenza surveillance in mainland France:
- Reduction of influenza activity in 7 regions in mainland France
- Stable influenza activity in the 6 other metropolitan regions
- Transition from Corsica to the post-epidemic phase

More information on Bulletin grippe Santé publique France.
In metropolitan France, last week (2020w09), the incidence rate of influenza-like illness seen in general practice was estimated at 175 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI [159 ; 191]).
At the regional level, the highest incidence rates were reported in: Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (341 [275 ; 407]), Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (332 [236 ; 428]) and Nouvelle-Aquitaine (258 [183 ; 333]).
Conclusion of the working group for the global influenza surveillance in mainland France:
- Decrease in influenza activity in most metropolitan regions with a peak likely reached in week 07
- Stability of influenza activity in Burgundy Franche-Comté, Corsica and Normandy
- Co-circulation of the A(H1N1)pdm09 and B/Victoria viruses in metropolitan France

More information on Bulletin grippe Santé publique France.
All publications associated with this disease
  • Liard R, Souty C, Guerrisi C, Colizza V, Hanslik T, Kengne Kuetche C, Turbelin C, Blanchon T, Debin M. Seasonal influenza vaccination in pharmacy in France: description and determinants of the vaccinated at-risk population using this service, 1 year after implementation. Int J Pharm Pract. 2022. 30(3):253-260 PubMed HAL doi:10.1093/ijpp/riac007
  • Kissling E, Hooiveld M, Brytting M, Vilcu AM, de Lange M, Martínez-Baz I, Sigerson D, Enkirch T, Belhillil S, Meijer A, Castilla J, William N, Carnahan A, Falchi A, Hendriksen J, Casado I, Murray J, Enouf V, Dijkstra F, Marques DFP, Valenciano M. Absence of association between 2019-20 influenza vaccination and COVID-19: Results of the European I-MOVE-COVID-19 primary care project, March-August 2020. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2021. 15(4):429-438 PubMed doi:10.1111/irv.12839
  • Launay T, Souty C, Vilcu AM, Turbelin C, Blanchon T, Guerrisi C, Hanslik T, Colizza V, Bardoulat I, Lemaître M, Boëlle PY. Common communicable diseases in the general population in France during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS One. 2021. 16(10):e0258391 PubMed
  • Paternoster M, Masse S, van der Werf S, Lina B, Levy-Bruhl D, Villechenaud N, Valette M, Behillil S, Bernard-Stoecklin S, Guerrisi C, Blanchon T, Falchi A, Hanslik T, Turbelin C, Souty C. Estimation of influenza-attributable burden in primary care from season 2014/2015 to 2018/2019, France. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2021. 40(6):1263-1269 PubMed doi:10.1007/s10096-021-04161-1
  • Boëlle PY, Souty C, Launay T, Guerrisi C, Turbelin C, Behillil S, Enouf V, Poletto C, Lina B, van der Werf S, Lévy-Bruhl D, Colizza V, Hanslik T, Blanchon T. Excess cases of influenza-like illnesses synchronous with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic, France, March 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020. 25(14) PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.14.2000326
  • Rose A, Kissling E, Emborg HD, Larrauri A, McMenamin J, Pozo F, Trebbien R, Mazagatos C, Whitaker H, Valenciano M, European IVE group.. Interim 2019/20 influenza vaccine effectiveness: six European studies, September 2019 to January 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020. 25(10) PubMed PMC doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000153
  • Guerrisi C, Ecollan M, Souty C, Rossignol L, Turbelin C, Debin M, Goronflot T, Boëlle PY, Hanslik T, Colizza V, Blanchon T. Factors associated with influenza-like-illness: a crowdsourced cohort study from 2012/13 to 2017/18. BMC Public Health. 2019. 19(1):879 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1186/s12889-019-7174-6
  • Kalimeri K, Delfino M, Cattuto C, Perrotta D, Colizza V, Guerrisi C, Turbelin C, Duggan J, Edmunds J, Obi C, Pebody R, Franco AO, Moreno Y, Meloni S, Koppeschaar C, Kjelsø C, Mexia R, Paolotti D. Unsupervised extraction of epidemic syndromes from participatory influenza surveillance self-reported symptoms. PLoS Comput Biol. 2019. 15(4):e1006173 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006173 Link
  • Kissling E, Pozo F, Buda S, Vilcu AM, Gherasim A, Brytting M, Domegan L, Gómez V, Meijer A, Lazar M, Vučina VV, Dürrwald R, van der Werf S, Larrauri A, Enkirch T, O'Donnell J, Guiomar R, Hooiveld M, Petrović G, Stoian E, Penttinen P, Valenciano M, I-Move Primary Care Study Team. Low 2018/19 vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2) among 15-64-year-olds in Europe: exploration by birth cohort. Euro Surveill. 2019. 24(48) PubMed PMC doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.48.1900604
  • Kissling E, Pozo F, Buda S, Vilcu AM, Rizzo C, Gherasim A, Horváth JK, Brytting M, Domegan L, Meijer A, Paradowska-Stankiewicz I, Machado A, Vučina VV, Lazar M, Johansen K, Dürrwald R, van der Werf S, Bella A, Larrauri A, Ferenczi A, Zakikhany K, O'Donnell J, Dijkstra F, Bogusz J, Guiomar R, Filipović SK, Pitigoi D, Penttinen P, Valenciano M, I-MOVE/I-MOVE+ study team.. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine against influenza A in Europe in seasons of different A(H1N1)pdm09 and the same A(H3N2) vaccine components (2016-17 and 2017-18). Vaccine X. 2019. 3:100042 PubMed PMC doi:10.1016/j.jvacx.2019.100042
  • Kissling E, Rose A, Emborg HD, Gherasim A, Pebody R, Pozo F, Trebbien R, Mazagatos C, Whitaker H, Valenciano M, European Ive Group. Interim 2018/19 influenza vaccine effectiveness: six European studies, October 2018 to January 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019. 24(8) PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.1900121 Link
  • Polyakov P, Souty C, Böelle PY, Breban R. Classification of Spatiotemporal Data for Epidemic Alert Systems: Monitoring Influenza-Like Illness in France. Am J Epidemiol. 2019. 188(4):724-733 PubMed doi:10.1093/aje/kwy254
  • Souty C, Amoros P, Falchi A, Capai L, Bonmarin I, van der Werf S, Masse S, Turbelin C, Rossignol L, Vilcu AM, Lévy-Bruhl D, Lina B, Minodier L, Dorléans Y, Guerrisi C, Hanslik T, Blanchon T. Influenza epidemics observed in primary care from 1984 to 2017 in France: A decrease in epidemic size over time. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2019. 13(2):148-157 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1111/irv.12620 PDF
  • Souty C, Masse S, Valette M, Behillil S, Bonmarin I, Pino C, Turbelin C, Capai L, Vilcu AM, Lina B, van der Werf S, Blanchon T, Falchi A, Hanslik T. Baseline characteristics and clinical symptoms related to respiratory viruses identified among patients presenting with influenza-like illness in primary care. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019. 25(9):1147-1153 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2019.01.014
  • Adlhoch C, Snacken R, Melidou A, Ionescu S, Penttinen P, The European Influenza Surveillance Network. Dominant influenza A(H3N2) and B/Yamagata virus circulation in EU/EEA, 2016/17 and 2017/18 seasons, respectively. Euro Surveill. 2018. 23(13) PubMed PMC doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.13.18-00146
  • Ariza M, Guerrisi C, Souty C, Rossignol L, Turbelin C, Hanslik T, Colizza V, Blanchon T. Healthcare-seeking behaviour in case of influenza-like illness in the French general population and factors associated with a GP consultation: an observational prospective study. BJGP Open. 2018. 1(4):bjgpopen17X101253 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.3399/bjgpopen17X101253
  • Coletti P, Poletto C, Turbelin C, Blanchon T, Colizza V. Shifting patterns of seasonal influenza epidemics. Sci Rep. 2018. 8(1):12786 PubMed PMC doi:10.1038/s41598-018-30949-x
  • Domenech de Cellès M, Arduin H, Varon E, Souty C, Boëlle PY, Lévy-Bruhl D, van der Werf S, Soulary JC, Guillemot D, Watier L, Opatowski L. Characterizing and Comparing the Seasonality of Influenza-Like Illnesses and Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases Using Seasonal Waveforms. Am J Epidemiol. 2018. 187(5):1029-1039 PubMed doi:10.1093/aje/kwx336
  • Guerrisi C, Turbelin C, Souty C, Poletto C, Blanchon T, Hanslik T, Bonmarin I, Levy-Bruhl D, Colizza V. The potential value of crowdsourced surveillance systems in supplementing sentinel influenza networks: the case of France. Euro Surveill. 2018. 23(25) PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.25.1700337
  • Hazard A, Bourrion B, Baltazard H, Fournier L, François M. Bénéfices et risques de la prescription d'un traitement homéopathique en prophylaxie antigrippale : exemple de l'influenzinum Exercer. 2018. 148:465-71 Link PDF
  • Kissling E, Valenciano M, Pozo F, Vilcu AM, Reuss A, Rizzo C, Larrauri A, Horváth JK, Brytting M, Domegan L, Korczyńska M, Meijer A, Machado A, Ivanciuc A, Višekruna Vučina V, van der Werf S, Schweiger B, Bella A, Gherasim A, Ferenczi A, Zakikhany K, O Donnell J, Paradowska-Stankiewicz I, Dijkstra F, Guiomar R, Lazar M, Kurečić Filipović S, Johansen K, Moren A, I-MOVE/I-MOVE+ study team. 2015/16 I-MOVE/I-MOVE+ multicentre case-control study in Europe: Moderate vaccine effectiveness estimates against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and low estimates against lineage-mismatched influenza B among children. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018. 12(4):423-437 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1111/irv.12520
  • Rondy M, Kissling E, Emborg HD, Gherasim A, Pebody R, Trebbien R, Pozo F, Larrauri A, McMenamin J, Valenciano M, I-Move/I-Move Group. Interim 2017/18 influenza seasonal vaccine effectiveness: combined results from five European studies. Euro Surveill. 2018. 23(9) PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.9.18-00086
  • Souty C, Jreich R, LE Strat Y, Pelat C, Boëlle PY, Guerrisi C, Masse S, Blanchon T, Hanslik T, Turbelin C. Performances of statistical methods for the detection of seasonal influenza epidemics using a consensus-based gold standard. Epidemiol Infect. 2018. 146(2):168-176 PubMed doi:10.1017/S095026881700276X
  • Valenciano M, Kissling E, Larrauri A, Nunes B, Pitigoi D, O'Donnell J, Reuss A, Horváth JK, Paradowska-Stankiewicz I, Rizzo C, Falchi A, Daviaud I, Brytting M, Meijer A, Kaic B, Gherasim A, Machado A, Ivanciuc A, Domegan L, Schweiger B, Ferenczi A, Korczyńska M, Bella A, Vilcu AM, Mosnier A, Zakikhany K, de Lange M, Kurečić Filipovićović S, Johansen K, Moren A, I-MOVE primary care multicentre case-control team.. Exploring the effect of previous inactivated influenza vaccination on seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza: Results of the European I-MOVE multicentre test-negative case-control study, 2011/2012-2016/2017. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018. 12(5):567-581 PubMed PMC doi:10.1111/irv.12562
  • Vilcu AM, Souty C, Enouf V, Capai L, Turbelin C, Masse S, Behillil S, Valette M, Guerrisi C, Rossignol L, Blanchon T, Lina B, Hanslik T, Falchi A. Estimation of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness using data collected in primary care in France: comparison of the test-negative design and the screening method. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018. 24(4):431.e5-431.e12 PubMed HAL doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2017.09.003
  • Flicoteaux R, Protopopescu C, Tibi A, Blanchon T, Werf SV, Duval X, Mosnier A, Charlois-Ou C, Lina B, Leport C, Chevret S. Factors associated with non-persistence to oral and inhaled antiviral therapies for seasonal influenza: a secondary analysis of a double-blind, multicentre, randomised clinical trial. BMJ Open. 2017. 7(7):e014546 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014546
  • Kissling E, Rondy M, I-MOVE/I-MOVE+ study team. Early 2016/17 vaccine effectiveness estimates against influenza A(H3N2): I-MOVE multicentre case control studies at primary care and hospital levels in Europe. Euro Surveill. 2017. 22(7) PubMed PMC doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.7.30464
  • Koppeschaar CE, Colizza V, Guerrisi C, Turbelin C, Duggan J, Edmunds WJ, Kjelsø C, Mexia R, Moreno Y, Meloni S, Paolotti D, Perrotta D, van Straten E, Franco AO. Influenzanet: Citizens Among 10 Countries Collaborating to Monitor Influenza in Europe. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2017. 3(3):e58 PubMed PMC doi:10.2196/publichealth.7429 Link
  • Minodier L, Masse S, Capai L, Blanchon T, Ceccaldi PE, van der Werf S, Hanslik T, Charrel NR, Falchi A. Risk factors for seasonal influenza virus detection in stools of patients consulting in general practice for acute respiratory infections in France, 2014-2016. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2017. PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1111/irv.12523
  • Minodier L, Masse S, Capai L, Blanchon T, Ceccaldi PE, van der Werf S, Hanslik T, Charrel R, Falchi A. Clinical and virological factors associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with acute respiratory infection: a two-year prospective study in general practice medicine. BMC Infect Dis. 2017. 17(1):729 PubMed PMC doi:10.1186/s12879-017-2823-9
  • Souty C, Vilcu AM, Capai L, van der Werf S, Valette M, Blanchon T, Lina B, Behillil S, Hanslik T, Falchi A. Early estimates of 2016/17 seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in primary care in France. J Clin Virol. 2017. 95:1-4 PubMed HAL doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2017.08.002
  • Guerrisi C, Turbelin C, Blanchon T, Hanslik T, Bonmarin I, Levy-Bruhl D, Perrotta D, Paolotti D, Smallenburg R, Koppeschaar C, Franco AO, Mexia R, Edmunds WJ, Sile B, Pebody R, van Straten E, Meloni S, Moreno Y, Duggan J, Kjelsø C, Colizza V. Participatory Syndromic Surveillance of Influenza in Europe. J Infect Dis. 2016. 214(suppl 4):S386-S392 PubMed doi:10.1093/infdis/jiw280
  • Loubet P, Guerrisi C, Turbelin C, Blondel B, Launay O, Bardou M, Blanchon T, Bonmarin I, Goffinet F, Ancel PY, Colizza V, Hanslik T, Kernéis S. First nationwide web-based surveillance system for influenza-like illness in pregnant women: participation and representativeness of the French G-GrippeNet cohort. BMC Public Health. 2016. 16(1):253 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1186/s12889-016-2899-y
  • Loubet P, Guerrisi C, Turbelin C, Blondel B, Launay O, Bardou M, Goffinet F, Colizza V, Hanslik T, Kernéis S, GGNET study group. Influenza during pregnancy: Incidence, vaccination coverage and attitudes toward vaccination in the French web-based cohort G-GrippeNet. Vaccine. 2016. 34(20):2390-6 PubMed doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.034
  • Masse S, Minodier L, Heuze G, Blanchon T, Capai L, Falchi A. Influenza-like illness outbreaks in nursing homes in Corsica, France, 2014-2015: epidemiological and molecular characterization. Springerplus. 2016. 5(1):1338 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1186/s40064-016-2957-z
  • Souty C, Boëlle PY. Improving incidence estimation in practice-based sentinel surveillance networks using spatial variation in general practitioner density. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2016. 16(1):156 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1186/s12874-016-0260-x Link
  • Spiga R, Batton-Hubert M, Sarazin M. Predicting Fluctuating Rates of Hospitalizations in Relation to Influenza Epidemics and Meteorological Factors. PLoS One. 2016. 11(6):e0157492 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157492
  • Blanchon T, Geffrier F, Turbelin C, Daviaud I, Laouénan C, Duval X, Lambert B, Hanslik T, Mosnier A, Leport C. Use of neuraminidase inhibitors in primary health care during pandemic and seasonal influenza between 2009 and 2013. Antivir Ther. 2015. 20(7):753-61 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.3851/IMP2945
  • Boiron K, Sarazin M, Debin M, Raude J, Rossignol L, Guerrisi C, Odinkemelu D, Hanslik T, Colizza V, Blanchon T. Opinion about seasonal influenza vaccination among the general population 3 years after the A(H1N1)pdm2009 influenza pandemic. Vaccine. 2015. 33(48):6849-54 PubMed HAL doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.08.067
  • Minodier L, Charrel RN, Ceccaldi PE, van der Werf S, Blanchon T, Hanslik T, Falchi A. Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with influenza, clinical significance, and pathophysiology of human influenza viruses in faecal samples: what do we know? Virol J. 2015. 12(1):215 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1186/s12985-015-0448-4
  • Souty C, Blanchon T, Bonmarin I, Lévy-Bruhl D, Behillil S, Enouf V, Valette M, Bouscambert M, Turbelin C, Capai L, Roussel V, Hanslik T, Falchi A. Early estimates of 2014/15 seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing influenza-like illness in general practice using the screening method in France. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015. 11(7):1621-5 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1080/21645515.2015.1046661
  • Bajardi P, Vespignani A, Funk S, Eames KT, Edmunds WJ, Turbelin C, Debin M, Colizza V, Smallenburg R, Koppeschaar CE, Franco AO, Faustino V, Carnahan A, Rehn M, Paolotti D. Determinants of follow-up participation in the internet-based European influenza surveillance platform influenzanet. J Med Internet Res. 2014. 16(3):e78 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.2196/jmir.3010
  • Cantarelli P, Debin M, Turbelin C, Poletto C, Blanchon T, Falchi A, Hanslik T, Bonmarin I, Levy-Bruhl D, Micheletti A, Paolotti D, Vespignani A, Edmunds J, Eames K, Smallenburg R, Koppeschaar C, Franco AO, Faustino V, Carnahan A, Rehn M, Colizza V. The representativeness of a European multi-center network for influenza-like-illness participatory surveillance. BMC Public Health. 2014. 14(1):984 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-984
  • Debin M, Colizza V, Blanchon T, Hanslik T, Turbelin C, Falchi A. Effectiveness of 2012-2013 influenza vaccine against influenza-like illness in general population: estimation in a French web-based cohort. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014. 10(3):536-43 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.4161/hv.27439
  • Fantoni A, Arena C, Corrias L, Salez N, de Lamballerie X, Amoros JP, Blanchon T, Varesi L, Falchi A. Genetic drift of influenza A(H3N2) viruses during two consecutive seasons in 2011-2013 in Corsica, France. J Med Virol. 2014. 86(4):585-91 PubMed doi:10.1002/jmv.23745
  • Minodier L, Arena C, Heuze G, Ruello M, Amoros JP, Souty C, Varesi L, Falchi A. Epidemiology and Viral Etiology of the Influenza-Like Illness in Corsica during the 2012-2013 Winter: An Analysis of Several Sentinel Surveillance Systems. PLoS One. 2014. 9(6):e100388 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100388
  • Minodier L, Blanchon T, Souty C, Turbelin C, Leccia F, Varesi L, Falchi A. Influenza vaccine effectiveness: best practice and current limitations of the screening method and their implications for the clinic. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014. 13(8):1039-48 PubMed doi:10.1586/14760584.2014.930666
  • Paolotti D, Carnahan A, Colizza V, Eames K, Edmunds J, Gomes G, Koppeschaar C, Rehn M, Smallenburg R, Turbelin C, Van Noort S, Vespignani A. Web-based participatory surveillance of infectious diseases: the Influenzanet participatory surveillance experience. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014. 20(1):17-21 PubMed PMC doi:10.1111/1469-0691.12477
  • Souty C, Turbelin C, Blanchon T, Hanslik T, Le Strat Y, Boelle PY. Improving disease incidence estimates in primary care surveillance systems. Popul Health Metrics. 2014. 12(1):19 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1186/s12963-014-0019-8 Link
  • Blanchon T, Mentré F, Charlois-Ou C, Dornic Q, Mosnier A, Bouscambert M, Carrat F, Duval X, Enouf V, Leport C, the Bivir Study Group. Factors associated with clinical and virological response in patients treated with oseltamivir or zanamivir for influenza A during the 2008-2009 winter. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013. 19(2):196-203 PubMed HAL doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03751.x
  • Debin M, Souty C, Turbelin C, Blanchon T, Boëlle PY, Hanslik T, Hejblum G, Le Strat Y, Quintus F, Falchi A. Determination of French influenza outbreaks periods between 1985 and 2011 through a web-based Delphi method. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2013. 13(1):138 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1186/1472-6947-13-138
  • Debin M, Turbelin C, Blanchon T, Bonmarin I, Falchi A, Hanslik T, Levy-Bruhl D, Poletto C, Colizza V. Evaluating the feasibility and participants' representativeness of an online nationwide surveillance system for influenza in france. PLoS One. 2013. 8(9):e73675 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073675
  • Falchi A, Souty C, Grisoni ML, Mosnier A, Hanslik T, Daviaud I, Varesi L, Kerneis S, Carrat F, Blanchon T. Field seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness: evaluation of the screening method using different sources of data during the 2010/2011 French influenza season. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013. 9(11):2453-9 PubMed PMC doi:10.4161/hv.25513
  • Pelat C, Lasserre A, Xavier A, Turbelin C, Blanchon T, Hanslik T. Hospitalization of influenza-like illness patients recommended by general practitioners in France between 1997 and 2010. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2013. 7(1):74-84 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00356.x
  • Privileggio L, Falchi A, Grisoni ML, Souty C, Turbelin C, Fonteneau L, Hanslik T, Kernéis S. Rates of immunization against pandemic and seasonal influenza in persons at high risk of severe influenza illness: a cross-sectional study among patients of the French Sentinelles general practitioners. BMC Public Health. 2013. 13(1):246 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-246
  • Turbelin C, Souty C, Pelat C, Hanslik T, Sarazin M, Blanchon T, Falchi A. Age Distribution of Influenza Like Illness Cases during Post-Pandemic A(H3N2): Comparison with the Twelve Previous Seasons, in France. PLoS One. 2013. 8(6):e65919 PubMed PMC doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065919
  • Arena C, Amoros JP, Vaillant V, Balay K, Chikhi-Brachet R, Varesi L, Arrighi J, Blanchon T, Carrat F, Hanslik T, Falchi A. Simultaneous investigation of influenza and enteric viruses in the stools of adult patients consulting in general practice for acute diarrhea. Virol J. 2012. 9(1):116 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1186/1743-422X-9-116
  • Carrat F, Duval X, Tubach F, Mosnier A, van der Werf S, Tibi A, Blanchon T, Leport C, Flahault A, Mentré F, BIVIR study group. Effect of oseltamivir, zanamivir or oseltamivir-zanamivir combination treatments on transmission of influenza in households. Antivir Ther. 2012. 17(6):1085-90 PubMed doi:10.3851/IMP2128
  • Escuret V, Cornu C, Boutitie F, Enouf V, Mosnier A, Bouscambert-Duchamp M, Gaillard S, Duval X, Blanchon T, Leport C, Gueyffier F, van der Werf S, Lina B. Oseltamivir-zanamivir bitherapy compared to oseltamivir monotherapy in the treatment of pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus infections. Antiviral Res. 2012. 96(2):130-7 PubMed HAL doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.08.002
  • Boëlle PY, Ansart S, Cori A, Valleron AJ. Transmission parameters of the A/H1N1 (2009) influenza virus pandemic: a review. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2011. 5(5):306-16 PubMed PMC doi:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00234.x
  • Falchi A, Amoros JP, Arena C, Arrighi J, Casabianca F, Andreoletti L, Turbelin C, Flahault A, Blanchon T, Hanslik T, Varesi L. Genetic structure of human A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza virus on Corsica Island: phylogenetic analysis and vaccine strain match, 2006-2010. PLoS One. 2011. 6(9):e24471 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024471
  • Falchi A, Turbelin C, Andreoletti L, Arena C, Blanchon T, Bonmarin I, Hanslik T, Leruez-Ville M, De Lamballerie X, Carrat F. Nationwide surveillance of 18 respiratory viruses in patients with influenza-like illnesses: A pilot feasibility study in the French Sentinel Network. J Med Virol. 2011. 83(8):1451-7 PubMed HAL Peer doi:10.1002/jmv.22113
  • Pelat C, Falchi A, Carrat F, Mosnier A, Bonmarin I, Turbelin C, Vaux S, van der Werf S, Cohen JM, Lina B, Blanchon T, Hanslik T. Field Effectiveness of Pandemic and 2009-2010 Seasonal Vaccines against 2009-2010 A(H1N1) Influenza: Estimations from Surveillance Data in France. PLoS One. 2011. 6(5):e19621 PubMed PMC doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019621
  • Canini L, Andreoletti L, Ferrari P, D'Angelo R, Blanchon T, Lemaitre M, Filleul L, Ferry JP, Desmaizieres M, Smadja S, Valleron AJ, Carrat F. Surgical mask to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. PLoS One. 2010. 5(11):e13998 PubMed PMC doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013998
  • Carrat F,Pelat C,Levy-Bruhl D,Bonmarin I,Lapidus N. Planning for the next influenza H1N1 season: a modelling study. BMC Infect Dis. 2010. 10:301 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-301
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  • Hanslik T, Boelle PY, Flahault A. Preliminary estimation of risk factors for admission to intensive care units and for death in patients infected with A(H1N1)2009 influenza virus, France, 2009-2010. PLoS Curr. 2010. 2:RRN1150 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1371/currents.rrn1150
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  • Falchi A, Varesi L, Arena C, Leveque N, Renois F, Blanchon T, Amoros JP, Andreoletti L. Co-circulation of two genetically distinct sub-groups of A/H3N2 influenza strains during the 2006-2007 epidemic season in Corsica Island, France. J Clin Virol. 2009. 45(3):265-8 PubMed HAL doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2009.05.004
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  • Turbelin C,Pelat C,Boëlle PY,Lévy-Bruhl D,Carrat F,Blanchon T,Hanslik T. Early estimates of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus activity in general practice in France: incidence of influenza-like illness and age distribution of reported cases. Euro Surveill. 2009. 14(39) PubMed HAL doi:10.2807/ese.14.39.19341-en
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  • Kernéis S,Grais RF,Boëlle PY,Flahault A,Vergu E. Does the effectiveness of control measures depend on the influenza pandemic profile? PLoS One. 2008. 3(1):e1478 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001478
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  • Colizza V, Barrat A, Barthélemy M, Valleron AJ, Vespignani A. Modeling the worldwide spread of pandemic influenza: baseline case and containment interventions. PLoS Med. 2007. 4(1):e13 PubMed PMC doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040013
  • Denoeud L,Turbelin C,Ansart S,Valleron AJ,Flahault A,Carrat F. Predicting pneumonia and influenza mortality from morbidity data. PLoS One. 2007. 2(5):e464 PubMed PMC doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000464
  • Cauchemez S, Boëlle PY, Thomas G, Valleron AJ. Estimating in real time the efficacy of measures to control emerging communicable diseases. Am J Epidemiol. 2006. 164(6):591-7 PubMed doi:10.1093/aje/kwj274
  • Flahault A. Global monitoring of influenza: potential contribution of national networks from a French perspective. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2006. 4(3):387-93 PubMed doi:10.1586/14787210.4.3.387
  • Flahault A, Vergu E, Coudeville L, Grais RF. Strategies for containing a global influenza pandemic. Vaccine. 2006. 24(44-46):6751-5 PubMed HAL doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.05.079
  • Lavenu A, Leruez-Ville M, Chaix ML, Boelle PY, Rogez S, Freymuth F, Hay A, Rouzioux C, Carrat F. Detailed analysis of the genetic evolution of influenza virus during the course of an epidemic. Epidemiol Infect. 2006. 134(3):514-20 PubMed PMC doi:10.1017/S0950268805005686
  • Le Menach A, Vergu E, Grais RF, Smith DL, Flahault A. Key strategies for reducing spread of avian influenza among commercial poultry holdings: lessons for transmission to humans. Proc Biol Sci. 2006. 273(1600):2467-75 PubMed HAL PMC doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3609
  • Legrand J, Vergu E, Flahault A. Real-time monitoring of the influenza vaccine field effectiveness. Vaccine. 2006. 24(44-46):6605-11 PubMed HAL doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.05.063
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  • Viboud C, Boëlle PY, Pakdaman K, Carrat F, Valleron AJ, Flahault A. Influenza epidemics in the United States, France, and Australia, 1972-1997. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004. 10(1):32-9 PubMed PMC doi:10.3201/eid1001.020705
  • Viboud C, Pakdaman K, Boëlle PY, Wilson ML, Myers MF, Valleron AJ, Flahault A. Association of influenza epidemics with global climate variability. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004. 19(11):1055-9 PubMed doi:10.1007/s10654-004-2450-9
  • Viboud C, Boëlle PY, Carrat F, Valleron AJ, Flahault A. Prediction of the spread of influenza epidemics by the method of analogues. Am J Epidemiol. 2003. 158(10):996-1006 PubMed doi:10.1093/aje/kwg239
  • Carrat F, Sahler C, Rogez S, Leruez-Ville M, Freymuth F, Le Gales C, Bungener M, Housset B, Nicolas M, Rouzioux C. Influenza burden of illness: estimates from a national prospective survey of household contacts in France. Arch Intern Med. 2002. 162(16):1842-8 PubMed doi:10.1001/archinte.162.16.1842
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  • Carrat F, Tachet A, Rouzioux C, Housset B, Valleron AJ. Evaluation of clinical case definitions of influenza: detailed investigation of patients during the 1995-1996 epidemic in France. Clin Infect Dis. 1999. 28(2):283-90 PubMed doi:10.1086/515117
  • Bonabeau E, Toubiana L, Flahault A. The geographical spread of influenza. Proc Biol Sci. 1998. 265(1413):2421-5 PubMed PMC doi:10.1098/rspb.1998.0593
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  • Flahault A, Dias-Ferrao V, Chaberty P, Esteves K, Valleron AJ, Lavanchy D. FluNet as a tool for global monitoring of influenza on the Web. JAMA. 1998. 280(15):1330-2 PubMed doi:10.1001/jama.280.15.1330
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  • Carrat F, Tachet A, Housset B, Valleron AJ, Rouzioux C. Influenza and influenza-like illness in general practice: drawing lessons for surveillance from a pilot study in Paris, France. Br J Gen Pract. 1997. 47(417):217-20 PubMed PMC
  • Carrat F. Vaccination against influenza in healthy adults. N Engl J Med. 1996. 334(6):403; author reply 40 PubMed
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  • Carrat F, Flahault A, Diaz C. Grippe Clinique : Une épidémie exceptionnellement tardive. Bull Epidémiol Hebd. 1995. 17:75 Link
  • Carrat F, Valleron AJ. [Anti-influenza vaccine. Bibliographic review]. Rev Mal Respir. 1994. 11(3):239-55 PubMed
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  • Costagliola D, Flahault A, Galinec D, Garnerin P, Menares J, Valleron AJ. A routine tool for detection and assessment of epidemics of influenza-like syndromes in France. Am J Public Health. 1991. 81(1):97-9 PubMed PMC doi:10.2105/ajph.81.1.97
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  • Menares J, Garnerin P, Valleron AJ. Syndromes grippaux : Surveillance des syndromes grippaux par un réseau téléinformatique national 1984-1989. REH. 1990. 14:103-4 Link
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  • Flahault A, Letrait S, Blin P, Hazout S, Ménarés J, Valleron AJ. Modelling the 1985 influenza epidemic in France. Stat Med. 1988. 7(11):1147-55 PubMed doi:10.1002/sim.4780071107
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  • Flahault A. Un nouvel indicateur épidémiologique pour détecter le début d'une épidémie. Bull Epidémiol Hebd. 1986. 47:185 Link